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Physics is the natural science of matter, involving the study of matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans.

Physics is based on experimental observations and quantitative measurements. The main objective of physics is to find the limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena and to use them to develop theories that can predict the results of future experiments. The fundamental laws used in developing theories are expressed in the language of mathematics, the tool that provides a bridge between theory and experiment.

Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. The study of physics is also an adventure. You will find it challenging, sometimes frustrating, occasionally painful, and often richly rewarding. If you’ve ever wondered why the sky is blue, how radio waves can travel through empty space, or how a satellite stays in orbit, you can find the answers by using fundamental physics. You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves.

Classical Physics: Physics which developed before 1900, includes the theories, concepts, laws, and experiments in classical mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism. Important contributions to classical physics were provided by Sir Newton, who developed classical mechanics as a systematic theory and was one of the originators of calculus as a mathematical tool. Major developments in mechanics continued in the 18th century, but the fields of thermodynamics and electricity and magnetism were not developed until the latter part of the 19th century, principally because before that time the apparatus for controlled experiments was either too crude or unavailable.

Modern Physics: The new era in physics referred as modern physics, began near the end of the 19th century. Modern physics developed mainly because of the discovery that many physical phenomena could not be explained by classical physics. The two most important developments in modern physics were the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics. Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized the traditional concepts of space, time, and energy; quantum mechanics, which applies to both the microscopic and macroscopic worlds, was originally formulated by a number of distinguished scientists to provide descriptions of physical phenomena at the atomic level.

Some Importent Physics Law's and Theorem

Newton's Law of Motion

Newton’s First law of motion: In the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity. In simpler terms, we can say that when no force acts on an object, the acceleration of the object is zero.

Newton’s Second law of motion: If a net external force acts on a body, the body accelerates. The direction of acceleration is the same as the direction of the net force. The mass of the body times the acceleration of the body equals the net force vector.

Newton’s Third law of motion: For every action (force) in nature there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Work Energy Theorem

Work done by all the forces on a body is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of that body.

Work(net) = ΔKE = Kf – Ki
Wconsevative + Wnon-consevative + Wexternal + WPseudo = ΔKE = Kf – Ki

The above equation is called the work energy theorem equation. If kinetic energy of the body decreases, net work done W becomes negative. In other words, we can say that when an object slows down, negative work has been done on that object. For example, A person is driving a car at high speed and he slows it down and reaches his destination during his journey, firstly at high velocity it will acquire high K.E. In the final part of his journey he attains low velocity and acquires low K.E. Since work done in this journey is represented by the change in its kinetic energy which will be negative.

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

Kepler's First law: All the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits having the sun at one of the focii.

Kepler's Second law: The radius vector drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

Kepler's Third law: The square of the time period of revolution of a planet around the sun in an elliptical orbit is directly proportional to the cube of its semi-major axis.

Archimedes Principle

The upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether partially or fully submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces.

Pascal's law

The external static pressure applied on a confined liquid is distributed or transmitted evenly throughout the liquid in all directions.

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